Amerika was a Passenger/ Refrigerated cargo ship completed in 1930 and sunk in 1943 by enemy action with heavy loss of life including that of 37 members of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Her sister vessels were called Canada and Europa.
|Registered owners, managers and operators||A/S Det Ostasiatiske Kompagni (East Asiatic Line)|
|Builders||Burmeister & Wain|
|Registry||London (in 1943)|
|Engines||2-stroke cycle double acting 6 cylinder oil engine (2S.C.DA) with cylinder bore 24 3/4" and stroke 55 1/4".|
|Engine builders||Burmeister & Wain|
|Boiler||Double boiler - 100 psi|
The 1943-44 Lloyds Register entry for Amerika contains the following additional information:
- She had two steel decks with a third steel deck in motor spaces and forward holds
- Fitted with electronic direction finding equipment
|22 August 1929||Launched|
|May 1940||Transferred to the UK Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) operated by United Baltic Corporation, London|
|22 April 1943||Sunk by torpedo|
A promotional brochure for the East Asiatic Company issued in 1939 and covering North Pacific ports covered the vessels Europa, Erria andAmerika.
The outbound ports of call were Copenhagen, Southampton, St. Thomas, Kingston, Cristobal, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Seattle, Vancouver
The inbound ports of call were Vancouver, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Panama Canal, Kingston, St. Thomas, London, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Gothenburg, Copenhagen.
Amerika took part in 20 convoys and many independent voyages during WW2 according to information shown in the table below which is provided courtesy of Convoyweb - see External. Ref. #4.
|Halifax, Mar 2, 1940||HX.24 (Halifax - Liverpool)||Liverpool, Mar 16, 1940|
|Liverpool, Jun 8, 1940||OB.163 (Liverpool - Dispersed)|
|Independent||Capetown, Jun 29, 1940|
|Capetown, Jul 7, 1940||Independent||Port Elizabeth, Jul 9, 1940|
|Port Elizabeth, Jul 9, 1940||Independent||Durban, Jul 11, 1940|
|Durban, Jul 17, 1940||Independent||Mombasa, Jul 23, 1940|
|Mombasa, Jul 25, 1940||Independent||Colombo, Aug 2, 1940|
|Colombo, Aug 2, 1940||Independent||Calcutta, Aug 7, 1940|
|Calcutta, Aug 19, 1940||Independent||Colombo, Aug 24, 1940|
|Colombo, Aug 25, 1940||Independent||Capetown, Sep 9, 1940|
|Capetown, Sep 20, 1940||Independent||Freetown, Sep 30, 1940|
|Freetown, Oct 3, 1940||SL.50 (Freetown - Liverpool)||Liverpool, Oct 25, 1940|
|Liverpool, Dec 10, 1940||Independent||Swansea, Dec 11, 1940|
|Independent||Newport, Dec 15, 1940|
|Swansea, Dec 15, 1940||Independent|
|Newport, Jan 1, 1941||Independent||Freetown, Jan 18, 1941|
|Freetown, Jan 20, 1941||Independent||Capetown, Jan 31, 1941|
|Capetown, Feb 1, 1941||Independent||Port Elizabeth, Feb 3, 1941|
|Port Elizabeth, Feb 6, 1941||Independent||Durban, Feb 10, 1941|
|Durban, Feb 15, 1941||Independent||Mombasa, Mar 7, 1941|
|Mombasa, Mar 9, 1941||Independent||Aden, Mar 15, 1941|
|Aden, Mar 18, 1941||US.9/2 (Bombay - Suez)||Port Sudan, Mar 20, 1941|
|Port Sudan, Mar 25, 1941||Independent||Suez, Mar 28, 1941|
|Port Said, Apr 16, 1941||Independent||Alexandria, Apr 17, 1941|
|Alexandria, May 6, 1941||MW.7A (Alexandria - Malta)||Malta, May 9, 1941|
|Malta, Jul 23, 1941||MG.1A (Malta - Gibraltar)||Gibraltar, Jul 26, 1941|
|Gibraltar, Aug 6, 1941||HG.34FA (Gibraltar - Liverpool)||Belfast Lough, Aug 13, 1941|
|Independent||Liverpool, Nov 1, 1941|
|Belfast Lough, Nov 1, 1941||Independent|
|Liverpool, Nov 13, 1941||ON.36 (Liverpool - Dispersed)|
|Independent||Bermuda, Nov 30, 1941|
|Bermuda, Nov 30, 1941||Independent||Curacao, Dec 4, 1941|
|Curacao, Dec 11, 1941||Independent||Cristobal, Dec 13, 1941|
|Balboa, Dec 20, 1941||Independent||Melbourne, Jan 15, 1942|
|Melbourne, Jan 22, 1942||Independent||Sydney NSW, Jan 23, 1942|
|Independent||Newcastle NSW, Feb 1, 1942|
|Sydney NSW, Feb 1, 1942||Independent|
|Newcastle NSW, Feb 5, 1942||Independent||Wellington, Feb 10, 1942|
|Wellington, Feb 19, 1942||Independent||Balboa, Mar 15, 1942|
|Cristobal, Mar 23, 1942||Independent||Halifax, Apr 2, 1942|
|Halifax, Apr 8, 1942||HX.184 (Halifax - Liverpool)||Clyde, Apr 20, 1942|
|Clyde, Aug 6, 1942||ON.119 (Liverpool - NYC)||New York, Aug 20, 1942|
|New York, Sep 3, 1942||NG.302 (NYC - Guantanamo)||Guantanamo, Sep 10, 1942|
|Guantanamo, Sep 13, 1942||GZ.3 (Guantanamo - Cristobal)||Cristobal, Sep 17, 1942|
|Balboa, Sep 19, 1942||Independent||Auckland, Oct 11, 1942|
|Auckland, Oct 22, 1942||Independent||Lyttelton, Nov 8, 1942|
|Wellington, Nov 8, 1942||Independent|
|Lyttelton, Nov 16, 1942||Independent||Bluff, Nov 18, 1942|
|Bluff, Nov 22, 1942||Independent||Wellington, Nov 27, 1942|
|Wellington, Dec 1, 1942||Independent||Balboa, Dec 22, 1942|
|Cristobal, Dec 28, 1942||ZG.17 (Cristobal - Guantanamo)||Guantanamo, Jan 1, 1943|
|Guantanamo, Jan 1, 1943||GN.32 (Guantanamo - NYC)||New York, Jan 9, 1943|
|New York, Jan 14, 1943||HX.223 (NYC - Liverpool)||Liverpool, Feb 2, 1943|
|Liverpool, Feb 21, 1943||ON.168 (Liverpool - Dispersed)||Belfast Lough, Feb 22, 1943|
|Belfast Lough, Mar 4, 1943||ON.170 (Liverpool - NYC)||Halifax, Mar 19, 1943|
|Halifax, Apr 14, 1943||HX.234 (NYC - Liverpool)|
Amerika was lost while taking part in convoy HX. 234.
From the various accounts available and casualty lists, a total of 86 people lost their lives when Amerika was attacked and sunk by a German submarine.
The Convoy Commodore's Report
A report completed by Commodore E. C. Denison on Convoy HX 234 is transcribed below. The main casualty of this convoy was Amerika which was torpedoed and sunk, though another ship Silvermaple was struck a glancing blow by another torpedo. This information was obtained from the Warsailors website - External Ref. #14.
OPERATIONS OF U-BOATS IN VICINITY OF AND ATTACKS ON CONVOY HX 234
April 21-25 1943 - All times GMT (the report is incomplete)
The first intimation that Convoy was being shadowed was at 04:00/21 when HMS Pennywort, stationed on starboard quarter of Convoy, attacked a U-boat in Position 56 27N 47 30W. Course and speed of Convoy at the time was 074° 9 1/2 knots. It was known that Convoy ONS 3 was being attacked to the southeast and that Convoy ON 178 steering south 150 miles ahead of HX 234 had been sighted and reported. Course of Convoy was immediately altered to 050° and to 080° at 12:00/21. Course was again altered to 047° after dark at 21:30/21.
A strong Northerly gale had meanwhile sprung up with heavy snow blizzards and during the night the speed of the Convoy was reduced to 3-4 knots. At about 01:00/22 Amerika (No. 75), rear ship of the 7th column, was torpedoed and sunk in Position 57 30N 42 45W. No rockets were seen and no distress signals were intercepted. She was hit on the port side aft and amidships. The only ship in the Convoy that saw Amerika torpedoed was Washington Express (No. 84) who reported having seen 3 flashes and heard a syren. The latter ship did not fire any white rockets. Corner Brook (No. 64) reported that the last time she saw Amerika was just before the alteration of course at 21:30/21 and that she was then a long way astern of station. NOTE: Amerika had a declared speed of 14 knots.
HMS Asphodel picked up 54 survivors. It is regretted that there were 86 casualties. Convoy was slightly scattered during the gale, but as the weather moderated soon after daylight, quickly reformed. Course was altered to 060° at 12:00/22. Speed 9 1/2 knots. Patrolling Liberator reported several submarines to the southeast in Position 48 27N 40 00W at distances varying from 8-16 miles. Plane returned to base at dusk.
Evasive alterations of course of 30° to Port at 20:30/22 and 33° to starboard at 23:00/22 were carried out. Very heavy snow storms were encountered during the night of 22/23 which were of great assistance in hiding the Convoy which was not attacked. At 08:00/23 course of Convoy was altered to 075°. At 12:00/23 HMS Vimy, who was on the starboard beam of Convoy, reported 2 submarines on the surface bearing 210° 15 miles and attacked with depth charges. Position of Convoy at the time was 59 16N 36 12W. HMS Highlander proceeded to reinforce HMS Vimy.
At 14:00/23 in Position 59 18N 35 30W Silvermaple (No. 101), leader of 10th column, was torpedoed starboard side aft. Master reported that she had been hit in the after peak tank which was full of water and that his cargo oil was leaking. He considered Torpedo must have been at the end of its run. It would appear to have been a glancing blow and Torpedo must have exploded outside the ship as, although a high column of water was observed damage was comparatively slight and ship was able to proceed with Convoy at 9 1/2 knots after about half an hour.
Convoy was immediately turned 90° to Port by two Emergency Turns. Mean Course of 075° was resumed at 15:15/23. Two Liberators arrived at 16:00/23, patrolled round Convoy and reported sighting several U-boats. At 19:30/23 one of the planes reported a U-boat sinking in Position 59 45N 34 35W as a result of his attack. 13-16 survivors were seen swimming in the water. At 18:30/23, HMS Anemone (port beam of Convoy) reported firm contact and carried out a Depth Charge attack. Liberators returned to base at dusk.
Course of Convoy was altered to 090° at 1 8:45/23. Evasive alterations of Course of 20° to Port at 23:00/23 and 30° to starboard at 04:00/24 were carried out during the night. HMS Pennywort (on starboard quarter of Convoy) sighted a U-boat bearing 150° 2 1/2 miles at 01 :20/24 and fired star shell. U-boat dived.
The night of 23/24 was calm and clear with a bright moon. No attack materialised, which was surprising as the conditions were ideal for the U-boats of which there were many in the vicinity. Possibly the loss of one of their pack had depressed them. At 06:00/24 2 Catalinas arrived and at 13:00/24 one of them reported a U-boat bearing 240° 30 miles (the 2's and the 3's in this handwritten report sometimes look alike, but I believe the time 13:00 given here is correct). An Easterly gale sprang up during the day and increased in violence during the night. Planes returned to base at dusk. As Convoy was still being shadowed, evasive alterations of 30° to starboard at 22:00/24 and 40° to Port at 03:00/25 were made during the night.
Senior Officer of Escort estimated that 12 U-boats were concentrated on Convoy on April 23rd. The loss of such a fine ship as Amerika is very much deplored. It is, however, felt that had she been in her proper station, she might quite easily have escaped. Signal "submarines known to be in vicinity well closed up" had been made twice to the.. .......(unfortunately, the next page is missing, only a few lines are visible, where Commodore Denison says: "The skill, judgement and determination of the Senior Officer, Commander Day and the C.O.'s of the Escort Vessels were worthy of high commendation".)
U-boat Reports on the Loss
The Uboat.net website - External Ref. #3 - has the following notes of the loss:
At 01.54 hours on 22 Apr, 1943, the Amerika (Master Christian Nielsen), a straggler from convoy HX-234, was torpedoed and sunk by U-306 south of Cape Farewell. 42 crew members, seven gunners and 37 passengers (RCAF personnel) were lost. The master, 29 crew members, eight gunners and 16 passengers were picked up by HMS Asphodel (K 56) (Lt H.P. Carse, DSC, RNVR) and landed at Greenock.
The Master Christian Nielsen was awarded the Lloyds War Medal for bravery at sea.
The ubootwaffe.net website - External Ref. #2 - provides the following additional information:
Cargo - 53 RCAF personnel and 8, 844 tons general cargo including metal, flour, meat and 200 bags of mail
Amerika was attacked and sunk with a two-torpedo spread. U-306 was part of the 'Meise' patrol group of 28 U-boats.
According to a newspaper report at the time, the following members of the Royal Canadian Air Force survived the sinking of the ship:
- Phillipe Bernier
- Ward Brawn
- Abraham Dyck
- Norman G Loudon
- W.E. McLean
- P/O Rennie
- John Wouters
There is an personal account of the loss of Amerika and what happened afterwards by one of the Canadian survivors John Wouters, on the Benjidog Recollections website HERE. The account includes photos of some of the survivors.
When Amerika was lost, the death toll included crew, DEMS gunners and RCAF servicemen.
Merchant Navy Losses
The table below lists the 42 merchant seamen lost when Amerika was sunk and is derived from the Tower Hill memorial and the Commonwealth War Grave Commission's "Debt of Honour" database.
|Surname||Forenames||D.O.D.||Rank||Cemetery/Memorial||Grave Ref.||Additional Information|
|Andersen||Kjeld J.||22/04/1943||Second Radio Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 39|
|Andersen||Poul||22/04/1943||Able Seaman||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 26. Son of Poul Ludwig Andersen and Anine Wilhelmine Andersen.|
|Andersson||Nils Edvin||22/04/1943||Boatswain||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 63. Husband of Anna Elizabeth Anderson (Nee Peterson), of Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Arnason||Geir||22/04/1943||Ordinary Seaman||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 17|
|Beldring||Mogens||22/02/1943||Able Seaman||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 22. Son of Alfred Carl Johannes Beldring and Justa Elisabeth Beldring, of Saedding, Esbjerg, Denmark.|
|Bell||John||22/04/1943||Assistant Storekeeper||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 18. Son of William Bell, and of Margaret Bell, of Liverpool.|
|Calvert||Gordon Clifford||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 28. Son of W. G. and Gertrude A. Calvert, of Abbey Wood, Kent.|
|Christensen||Walter||22/04/1943||Cook||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 22. Son of Inga E. S. Christensen, of Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Christiansen||Henry||22/04/1943||Junior Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 29. Son of Anton and Martha Christiansen, of Horsens, Denmark.|
|Daw||Bernard Augustine||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 21. Son of Charles and Johanna Daw, of Cardiff.|
|Devlin||Joseph||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 28|
|Donovan||Charles Patrick||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 21|
|Frederiksen||Jens||22/04/1943||Greaser||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 21|
|Gantzel||Else||22/04/1943||Stewardess||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 38|
|Gerda-Wischke||Henriette||22/04/1943||Assistant Stewardess||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 29. Daughter of G. and Juliane Gerda-Wischke, of Holte, Denmark.|
|Goran||Jack||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 29|
|Gregersen||Evald||22/04/1943||Assistant Cook||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 24|
|Griffiths||Alfred James||22/04/1943||Third Radio Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 29. Son of James and Annie Griffiths, of Ashley, Staffordshire.|
|Horn||Anker||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 20. Son of Mr. and Mrs. Max W. Horn, of Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Jensen||Carlo Arnfred||22/04/1943||Junior Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 31. Son of Jens Marius Jensen and Ingeborg Jensen, of Holstebro, Denmark; Husband of Verona Jensen, of Aalsgaarde, Denmark.|
|Jensen||Gunni E. R.||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 19|
|Johansen||Jens||22/04/1943||Able Seaman||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 26|
|Johnsen||Emil||22/04/1943||Junior Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 39. Son of Christian Emil J. Johnsen and of Annesse Johnsen (Nee Eliasan); Husband of Dagny K. M. Johnsen, of Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|King||Harold Gelderd||22/04/1943||Assistant Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 34. Son of James and Lizzie King; Husband of Elizabeth Scott King, of Wavertree, Liverpool.|
|Kristensen||Karl Marinus||22/04/1943||Junior Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 43. Son of Kristine Petersen; Husband of Magda Kristensen, of Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Larsen||Edmund||22/04/1943||Purser||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 51. Son of Oluf Emil and Hanne Elizabeth Larsen; Husband of Karen Sofie Larsen, of Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Levy||Joe||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 37. Son of Rheuben and Maria Levy.|
|Maher||Patrick||22/04/1943||Bartender||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 38. Son of Thomas Maher, and of Annie Maher (Nee Hayes), of Carrick-On-Suir, Co. Tipperary, Irish Republic.|
|Mogensen||Svend Aage||22/04/1943||Electrician||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 42. Son of Jens Peter and Anna Margrethe Modensen; Husband of Ruth Dagny Mogensen.|
|Muhring||Ernst||21/04/1943||Chief Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 46. Son of Johan Karl Fridrich Muhring and of Laura Juliane Muhring (Nee Wismar); Husband of Kamilla Muhring, of Copenhagen, Denmark. His Brother Johan Perished With Him.|
|Muhring||Johan||21/04/1943||Third Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 31. Son of Johan Karl Fridrich Muhring and of Laura Juliane Muhring (Nee Wismar); Husband of Marie Muhring (Nee Rav), of Nyborg, Denmark. His Brother Ernst Perished With Him.|
|Pedersen||Leo||22/04/1943||Greaser||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 37|
|Petersen||George||22/04/1943||Steward||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 28|
|Puge||Knud Aage||22/04/1943||Third Engineer Officer||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 34. Son of Lars and Sigrid Puge, of Nakskov, Denmark.|
|Rasmussen||Karl||22/04/1943||Greaser||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 33|
|Richardt||Carl||22/04/1943||Baker||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 37|
|Schlichter||Tommy O.||22/04/1943||Assistant Cook||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 19|
|Selmer||Herschel Henry||22/04/1943||Assistant Cook||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 29. Husband of Ethel May Selmer, of Cwmbran. Monmouthshire.|
|Sorensen||Knud Bauer||22/04/1943||Able Seaman||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 24. Son of Rasmus Ducinius Sorensen and Sofie Sorensen, of Gorlev, Denmark.|
|Sorensen||Sophus William Christian||22/04/1943||Chief Cook||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 48. Son of Benelt and Sofie Sorensen, of Hvidovre, Copenhagen; Husband of Sara Sorensen, of Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Stainthorpe||Arthur||22/04/1943||Assistant Cook||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 22. Son of Arthur and Alice Stainthorpe, of Whetley Hill, Bradford, Yorkshire.|
|Stroe-Nielsen||Ejnar||22/04/1943||Carpenter||Tower Hill Memorial||Panel 7.||Age 37. Husband of Aase Stroe-Nielsen, of Dragor, Denmark.|
It is clear from the casualty list that many of the crew were Danish. One of these was Henriette Gerdawischke (although her name is spelled incorrectly on the Tower Hill memorial and records of the CWGC). I was very surprised to be contacted in November 2012 by her nephew who sent me the photograph below.
She had earlier survived the sinking of Canada, another Danish passenger/cargo ship completed in 1935 and sunk by a mine on 4 November 1939.
Henriette was known to her family as Henny and her brother, who in 2012 was 98 years old and looking remarkably healthy, still spoke of her regularly. Henny was engaged to be married to 3rd Engineer Officer Knud Aage Puge of Nakskov who was also lost with Amerika and listed on the Tower Hill memorial. They were planning to marry after this trip to America but sadly this was not to be.
One day some years after the loss of the ship, Henny's brother who worked at the harbour met a sailor who had helped people who had been in Amerika's lifeboats. He recounted that Henny was frozen to death in one of the lifeboats along with many others.
It is a pleasure to put a face to at least one of the victims of this sad event and I am grateful to Tove Gerdawischke for contacting me about this and permitting me to publish the photo.
The table below lists the 7 gunners who lost their lives. The information has been obtained from External Ref. #44.
|Cameron||John||Gunner RA 1816240||4 Maritime Regiment, RA, O/P|
|Drury||Dennis F||Act/Able Seaman (DEMS) C/JX 334386||President III, O/P, MPK|
|Gatherum||David F||Act/Able Seaman C/JX 391175||President III, O/P, MPK|
|Stone||Frederick H||Ty/Act/Sergeant, RFR, PLY/21231||President III, O/P, MPK|
|Tansey||Dennis||Act/Able Seaman (DEMS) C/JX 306849||President III, O/P, MPK|
|Turner||Raymond||Gunner RA 4695440||4 Maritime Regiment, RA, O/P|
|Wallis||Roy||Act/Able Seaman (DEMS) D/JX 337670||President III, O/P, MPK|
Royal Canadian Air Force Losses
The table below lists the 37 members of the Royal Canadian Air Force who were passengers on Amerika and who lost their lives. The information has been derived from External Ref. #43 based on the dates of recorded death and the fact that they were commemorated on the Ottawa memorial and were lost at sea rather than buried.
|Borum||John William||Flying Officer|
|Bradley||Lloyd Latimer||Pilot Officer|
|Bray||Eric William||Pilot Officer|
|Clarke||Donald Mason||Pilot Officer|
|Clarke||Russell Beverley||Pilot Officer|
|Clipsham||Archibald Charles||Pilot Officer|
|Dean||Stanley William||Pilot Officer|
|Fife||Benjamin Gordon||Pilot Officer|
|Gibson||Frank George||Pilot Officer|
|Harding||Clifford Alexander||Pilot Officer|
|Healey||Henry Harold||Pilot Officer|
|Hetherington||John Hugh Lyndon||Flying Officer|
|Jackson||Donald Victor||Pilot Officer|
|Jardine||Robert Stewart||Pilot Officer|
|Keys||Frederick Bennett||Pilot Officer|
|Kidd||Terence William||Pilot Officer|
|Lamont||Douglas Peter||Pilot Officer|
|Macdonald||Alan Stuart||Pilot Officer|
|Macdonald||Ernest Mills||Pilot Officer|
|Martin||John Joseph Bernard||Pilot Officer|
|McCloskey||Richard Scott||Flying Officer|
|Moore||James Edward||Pilot Officer|
|Mosser||Andrew James||Pilot Officer|
|Mosser||Robert William||Pilot Officer|
|O'Connell||Howard Ferguson||Pilot Officer|
|Ollis||Reginald Keith||Pilot Officer|
|Pearson||Arthur Henry||Pilot Officer|
|Pidduck||George William||Pilot Officer|
|Ritchie||Thomas James||Pilot Officer|
|Rombough||John Noble||Pilot Officer|
|Scott||William Alfred Dean||Pilot Officer|
|Slack||Warren Oliver||Pilot Officer|
|Warren||Joseph Howard||Pilot Officer|
|Woods||Kenneth Beverley||Pilot Officer|
The German submarine U-306 that sank Amerika, was itself sunk approximately 6 months later on 31 Oct 1943 in the North Atlantic north-east of the Azores, in position 46.19N, 20.44W, by depth charges from the British destroyer HMS Whitehall and corvette HMS Geranium. She was lost with all hands - 51 dead.
- From the site owner's postcard collection.
- By courtesy of the Library of Contemporary History, Stuttgart.
- By courtesy of Stan Mayes.
- By courtesy of Hans Gerdawischeke
- From the Benjidog Tower Hill Memorial website.